The association of microtubule (MT) breakdown with neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity has provided an emerging therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases. Tubulin binders are able to modulate MT dynamics and, as a result, are of particular interest both as potential therapeutics and experimental tools used to validate this strategy. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current knowledge and recent advancements regarding MT-targeting approaches for neurodegeneration and evaluate the potential application of MT-targeting agents (MTAs) based on available preclinical and clinical data.